Tuesday, November 11, 2008

Today, yesterday, tomorrow

1. The formation of adverbs refering to past or present days (as well as past or present years) is quite regular in Tanii:


-lo
-yo
-ro
-lyin
-nyan






a-
alo
day
ayo
night
aro
morning
alyin
evening
anyan
year
si(i)
si(i)lo
today
si(i)yo
tonight
si(i)ro
this morning
si(i)lyin
this evening
si(i)nyan
this year
bii
biilyo
yesterday
biiyo
yesterday night/ last night
biiro
yesterday morning/ last morning
biilyin
yesterday evening/ last evening
biinyan
last year
ko
kolo
day before yesterday
koyo
day before yesterday night
koro
day before yesterday morning
kolyin
day before yesterday
evening
konyan
2 years ago

The only exception is biilyo (yesterday).

Note
: In day-to-day conversation, kolo (day before yesterday) can have a broader sense and convey the meaning of "a few days back".

Ngo Mumbai ho kolo aku.
I arrived in Mumbai a couple of days back.

Another synonym is lonyi-lohin (literally '2-3 days') :

Lonyi-lohin kapyopa, ngo nii mi kapato.
I saw you some days back

Similarly, siinyan-siilo (literally 'this year-today') can be translated as "nowadays".

biinyan means "last year" and konyan "the year before last year" or "two years ago". Taken together, the two words biinyan-konyan convey the meaning of "in past years".


2. For refering to coming days, the formation of compound words is different : here the root -da is used with various prefixes :

D+1
D+2
D+3
D+4
arda
rida
riiboda
riikhiida/riipoda
tomorrow
day after tomorrow
three days hence
four days hence

Further specification (morning, evening, night) is made by adding corresponding words (aro, alyin, ayo). There are 2 exceptions : konda (tomorrow morning) and ri aro (day after tomorrow morning).


morning
evening
night
D+1
konda
tomorrow morning
arda alyin
tomorrow evening
arda ayo
tomorrow night
D+2
ri aro
day after tomorrow morning
rida alyin
day after tomorrow evening
rida ayo
day after tomorrow night
D+3
riiboda aro
3 days hence morning
riiboda alyin
3 days hence evening
riiboda ayo
3 days hence night

Note: arida and arda-rida (literally" tomorrow-day after tomorrow") are used for counting an unspecified number of days. Both can be translated either as "in coming days" or as " in future".

Arda-rida ngo Korea inchi
I will (surely) go to Korea in future.

The formation of adverbs refering to coming years is based on the same general principle (various prefixes + da), but is not regular. For coming months there are no specific words but cricumlocutions : alyinii piilo => literally 'coming month', alyinii piilo barnye nii (lit. 'the second of coming months'), alyinii piilo barhin nii (lit. 'the third of coming months'), etc.


DAY
MONTH
YEAR
+1
konda
tomorrow
alyinii piilo
next month
diirada
next year
+2
rida
day after tomorrow
alyinii piilo barnye nii
two months hence
lonyada
two years hence
+3
riiboda
alyinii piilo barhin nii
three months hence
loyida (lohida ?)
three years hence

Note 1 :
Lonyada could derive from : lo + nye (2) + da.
Loyida might be 'lohida' and thus derive from : lo + hin (3) + da (in Tanii the final n of 'hin' usually drops before l).


Note
2:
The same way arda-rida (literally "tomorrow-day after tomorrow") means "in coming days" or "in future", diira-lonyan (literally "next year-year after next year) can be translated as "in coming years" or " in future". Similarly loyida or lohida (3 years hence) can convey the general meaning of "in coming years".
PB